Xenon is an element that has anesthetic, dissociative, neuroprotective, and performance enhancing effects. It has mainly been researched as an anesthetic agent, though research has shown it could also be useful for neuroprotection.
It’s an expensive substance which can be found at a very low concentration in the air. While it could be used as a recreational drug like nitrous oxide, it is almost never used in that way.
The drug is quite safe at common doses (acutely), with the most significant common negative effects being nausea, vomiting, and headache.
Xenon = Xe
Not currently available due to a lack of information.
Total: 15 – 30 minutes
Onset: 5 – 15 seconds
(2016) Sub-anesthetic Xenon Increases Erythropoietin Levels in Humans: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
(2015) Urine analysis concerning xenon for doping control purposes.
(2014) Xenon Misuse in Sports – Increase of Hypoxia-Inducible Factors and Erythropoietin, or Nothing but “Hot Air”?
(2011) Early cognitive function, recovery and well-being after sevoflurane and xenon anaesthesia in the elderly: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial
(2010) Competitive inhibition at the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mediates xenon neuroprotection against hypoxia-ischemia.
(2010) Xenon anaesthesia produces better early postoperative cognitive recovery than sevoflurane anaesthesia.
(2010) Recovery index, attentiveness and state of memory after xenon or isoflurane anaesthesia: a randomized controlled trial
(2009) Is xenon a future neuroprotectant?
(2008) Xenon or propofol anaesthesia for patients at cardiovascular risk in non-cardiac surgery.
(2008) The haemodynamic and catecholamine response to xenon/remifentanil anaesthesia in Beagle dogs.
(2006) Special cases: ketamine, nitrous oxide and xenon.
(2006) Xenon provides short-term neuroprotection in neonatal rats when administered after hypoxia-ischemia.
(2006) Xenon: one small step for anaesthesia… ?
(2005) Randomized controlled trial of the haemodynamic and recovery effects of xenon or propofol anaesthesia.
(2005) Xenon anaesthesia may preserve cardiovascular function in patients with heart failure.
(2005) Xenon: elemental anaesthesia in clinical practice.
(2005) Xenon attenuates cerebral damage after ischemia in pigs.
(2005) The noble gas xenon induces pharmacological preconditioning in the rat heart in vivo via induction of PKC-epsilon and p38 MAPK.
(2003) Will xenon be a stranger or a friend?: the cost, benefit, and future of xenon anesthesia.
(2003) Xenon: no stranger to anaesthesia.
(2002) Neuroprotective and neurotoxic properties of the ‘inert’ gas, xenon.
(2002) The diverse actions of volatile and gaseous anesthetics on human-cloned 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.
(2002) Increased airway resistance during xenon anaesthesia in pigs is attributed to physical properties of the gas.
(2001) Cerebral and regional organ perfusion in pigs during xenon anaesthesia.
(2001) Xenon inhibits but N(2)O enhances ketamine-induced c-Fos expression in the rat posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortices.
(2001) Xenon inhalation increases norepinephrine release from the anterior and posterior hypothalamus in rats.
(2000) Xenon anaesthesia.
(2000) Xenon Anesthesia
(2000) Effects of gaseous anesthetics nitrous oxide and xenon on ligand-gated ion channels. Comparison with isoflurane and ethanol.
(1998) How does xenon produce anaesthesia?
(1997) Effects on haemodynamics and catecholamine release of xenon anaesthesia compared with total i.v. anaesthesia in the pig.
(1997) Emergence times from xenon anaesthesia are independent of the duration of anaesthesia.
(1993) Left ventricular performance and cerebral haemodynamics during xenon anaesthesia. A transoesophageal echocardiography and transcranial Doppler sonography study.
(1990) Haemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of xenon anaesthesia. A comparison with nitrous oxide.
(1990) Safety and efficacy of xenon in routine use as an inhalational anaesthetic.
(1951) The anesthetic properties of xenon in animals and human beings, with additional observations on krypton.